To get a lot of honey you need to pick a good breed of bees. This allows you to simplify their breeding, to get the maximum profit at low cost of effort, time and money. Karnik bees originated naturally on the slopes of the Austrian Alps in Yugoslavia. The most common in all European countries, there is one of the most popular varieties.
Description and characteristics of the breed
The bees are quite large, the weight of the fetal uterus is 205 mg, the barren is 185 mg, the drone is 230 mg. The color is silver-gray without yellow tergites. Abdomen pointed, proboscis length 6.5-6.8 mm on average.
The weight of the fetal uterus - 205 mg, barren - 185 mg, the drone - 230 mg
The nature of the bees of the breed Karnika calm, peaceful. They give themselves to inspect, do not interfere with cleaning the hive. When transporting, they behave quietly. Excellent pollinators collect nectar even on poor plantations. Daily fecundity up to 2000 eggs, which, unfortunately, is a small indicator.
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There are several breeding subspecies Karnik that can offer the buyer on the market. Below is a brief description of each of them.
- Troisek - the oldest breeding line. They swarm a little, neat, peace-loving. The development is gradual, the maximum increase - June-July.
- Pees is also a rather old, well-known strain. It is one of the most numerous. Such features are inherent in it: peacefulness, swarming, undulating development.
Selection subspecies Karnik
- Lower Austrian line - a mixture of the considered and northern species. Rasplod late, love comfort and spacious hives. Families do not grow weak in winter.
- Sclenar is an aggressive subspecies. It works on late honey plants. Not used for breeding hybrids or new breeds, crossing leads to extreme bitterness and royalness. It is recommended only for experienced beekeepers.
- Troisek Wintersbach is resistant to diseases, brood is medium, the peak of development falls in June. Used in industrial production.
- Troisek Celle - the representatives are calm, there is a weak prosperity until the womb is 3 years old, then the threat increases. For selection is not used.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Karnik Bees?
Karnika bees have many advantages, disadvantages are much smaller, and therefore they are loved by beekeepers. Below are the positive and negative sides that a breeder may encounter.
- Winter-hardy, withstand significant cooling, inferior to the Central Russian breed by this criterion, but also better than the Caucasian.
- The peacefulness of these creatures is amazing, they rarely sting, except under the condition of a real threat to life.
- They adapt to different conditions and weather conditions, although the quality and quantity of honey produced depends on the climate.
The productivity of Karnik bees - 50-70 kg of honey per family
- Suitable for honey collection in early spring.
- They have high productivity - 50-70 kg of honey per family. Initial productivity in good weather - 30 kg.
- Hardworking, do not wander. They are well oriented, have a good sense of smell, work even with cold snap.
The main drawback is the propensity to swarm. But if the beekeeper is experienced, there will be no problems, you just need to take appropriate measures - the process is controlled.
Also to the minuses of breed Karnik include small brood. On the one hand, this is good, on the other hand, this leads to a small number even when an increase in the family is extremely necessary.
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Before you buy the Karnik breed, you should pay attention to the climatic conditions in which they will live. Depending on the region, the qualitative characteristics vary, therefore, they are recommended for breeding only in certain areas where weather conditions are similar to the place of origin of the species.
The development is undulating. The breed of bees winters with a small family - 6-9 frames of rue, eats little. In the spring, early work on the collection of nectar begins, in a short time the family grows, the honeycombs fill up quickly. The beginning of their work falls on the period when the air temperature reaches 10-12 degrees Celsius. Initially, the brood portion of the nest is filled, and only then the store part. Signet light, dry.
Swarming Karnik bees
Swarming in bees of the Karnik species occurs with a sharp decrease in pheromones in the uterus and with a natural readiness to start collecting honey in early spring, even if there is no nectar yet. Readiness for swarming has certain characteristics:
- the uterus has cut the egg-laying;
- stop building honeycombs;
- bees do not fly out of the hive.
If these symptoms are noticeable, you need to quickly prevent a possible problem. To do this, you can increase the ventilation of the hive and reduce the light, so that the bees will begin to build additional honeycombs. You can also simply extend the nest using multi-tiered hives. In this case, the uterus is fenced off from the brood with a lattice.
What are bees sick and how to treat?
The breed is resistant to many diseases, including rot and Nosema. Diseases of brood are also rare, as are bee diseases. But recently there have been a lot of cases of ascospherosis in different regions. Limestone offspring occurs when the larvae and pupae are affected by a certain fungus that appears when the climate is too humid and there is a lack of hygiene on the part of the breeder while working with bees. At the last stage, the larva turns into a lump of lime.
By themselves, the Karnik bees simply cannot cope with it, it will only grow in the hive, then the help of a beekeeper is required. The first thing to do is remove the frame with the fungus. Then the infected frame and evidence are treated with any available means; Nystatin, Askotsin, and Unisan will do; you can also use garlic wrapped in gauze. The latter is simply to hang in the corners of the hive and some parts of the framework.