Coccidiosis is a known and deadly rabbit disease. It can appear for various reasons and quickly spreads among the livestock of eared animals, so that in the presence of the disease in one rabbit all the livestock are at risk. Coccidiosis is not dangerous for humans and other animals, and yet it is important for rabbit breeders to be aware of this disease. What is coccidiosis in rabbits, its symptoms, what to treat and what should be the prevention of the disease, read on.
What is coccidiosis?
Treatment and prevention of coccidiosis in rabbits
Coccidiosis is a disease caused by unicellular parasites with coccidia. When ingested, they damage the intestines or the liver and develop there. The affected organ ceases to function normally. Food is digested only partially or not at all digested. Nutrients are absorbed by the body poorly, the animal begins to suffer from depletion and lack of vitamins, minerals. Exhaustion is the main cause of death for rabbits when infected with coccidiosis.Interesting! Most of all diseases are susceptible to individuals who have changed feed. Therefore, most often coccidiosis overtakes small rabbits at the age of 3-4 months (when they switch from mother's milk to simple food), but adult animals can also become infected.
After the death of an animal, meat can be used as food, but not affected organs (liver, intestines) - they are thrown away and burned. From the skin is also a little good (it can not be sold for a normal price), because it deteriorates during the course of the disease.
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Coccidia oocysts can live in the feces of sick animals, on the surface of objects and even in food. So the infection is contact or fecal-oral. A disease can be transmitted by an infected crawl or by having been ill, nursing a female (with milk), a rodent, a bird, tools, insects, and even through contact with the breeder’s clothing if there are oocysts on it.
There are two types of coccidiosis - intestinal and hepaticImportant! The disease is not transmitted by airborne droplets, but can cause an epidemic, because it is quickly transmitted from the animal to the animal through equipment, feeders, food, feces, clothing of workers. Even on the dirty coat of a sick rabbit there can also be parasites!
The most frequent cases of the disease are fixed on farms where sanitation standards are not observed. If all individuals live together (both sick and healthy), nursing individuals are not separated, hygiene is not given due attention, then coccidiosis will not take long. A big role is played by the quality of feed. Grass with rodent or insect feces may contain coccidian oocysts. Through such a delicacy, rabbits easily fall ill with a dangerous disease.
Symptoms of coccidiosis and its varieties
There are two types of coccidiosis - intestinal and hepatic. Depending on the organ in which the parasites develop, this is the type of disease. The symptoms in these two species are not very different, although it is rather difficult to confuse the type of illness.
Hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits.
Hepatic coccidiosis can be attributed to a mild variant of the disease. His symptoms are not very pronounced, and the course of the disease is more or less calm. Symptoms:
yellow color of mucous membranes;
severe diarrhea, which is constantly replaced by constipation;
feces mucus and blood;
growth slows down (this is clearly seen in the case of young individuals);
the rabbit hardly eats;
the belly is slack;
purulent discharge from nose and eyes;
wool becomes disheveled, dull, may roll into clumps.
Symptoms of hepatic coccidiosis occur for 30-59 days, then the animal dies. This form of the disease is not as difficult to cure as intestinal, if the time to take response.
Important! Make sure that the dead rabbit was ill with coccidiosis, you can spend an autopsy. The intestine and liver of the sick animal will be covered with white nodules, specks.
This form of the disease is the most dangerous. It has a rapid development and is accompanied by acute symptoms that are hard to miss. Symptoms:
pus from nose and eyes;
lack of appetite;
diarrhea alternating with constipation;
feces mucus and blood present;
loss of shine wool.
The symptoms described are observed during the course of the disease. Before death there are convulsions. If no treatment measures were taken, the animal will die within 14 days.
Many rabbits have 2 types of coccidiosis at once. A lethal gathering in this case is more than likely. It is also worth noting that coccidiosis can develop in an acute or chronic form.
The disease in the acute variant appears already on day 3 after infection. Parasites are developing rapidly, so the chance of survival in the eared is small, even with surgical treatment.
The chronic form appears if the rabbit is already sick, but has recovered. Some of the parasites survive, and are located in the body of the rabbit, but do not cause much damage to the liver, intestines. The rabbit can develop normally, eat, while the nutrients for the most part absorbed. However, such an animal is dangerous for the rest of the herd, because it is a carrier of parasites.
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Coccidiosis in rabbits can be cured, if you respond to the disease in time. Treatment of coccidiosis in rabbits is usually carried out comprehensively. Traditional and medical preparations are used, but in addition, certain hygiene rules must be followed, due to which the risk of re-infection will be minimized.
Coccidia are conditionally pathogenic microflora
When the breeder begins to suspect the disease in a rabbit, it is necessary to call the vet. He examines the animal, confirms the disease, and then prescribes the method of treatment. As a rule, in such cases, first of all, it is necessary to use medical preparations to remove the symptoms and reduce the number of parasites in the body. In the case of coccidiosis, Ftalazol, Baycox, Sulfapyridazin, Vetom, Sulfadimetatoksin, Solikoks, Furazolidone are usually prescribed.Important! Coccidia quickly adapt to medications, so that during the period of treatment you need to use several different means.
If preference is given to folk methods, then it is necessary to solder the rabbits with a 0.01% solution of iodine daily. On the individual should go up to 50 ml at a time. On the 10th day, water is stopped with this solution, and then, on the 15th day, the feeding again is resumed, but by a 0.02% solution of 100 ml per individual. Course duration 15 days.
Vitamins (premixes) are also prescribed, namely B1 and A. Dairy products, such as yogurt and whey, are introduced into the diet. Any items in the cell must often be treated with boiling water or a solution of potassium permanganate. All things used to treat or care for a sick animal are constantly disinfected and not used to maintain healthy rabbits. Pet food should be of high quality, fresh, like water!
After treatment, the rabbit is better to be slaughtered, because it can be dangerous for other rabbits in the herd, even if settled separately. And as a manufacturer, it does not fit, for the same reason - it can transmit illness to offspring.
Disease prevention in rabbits
Diseases of rabbits is easier not to heal, but to prevent. Prevention of coccidiosis can protect the herd from a dangerous illness, but what is it?
Prevention is more efficient and cost-effective than treatment
- The cages and the rabbitry itself must be kept clean.
- Feces, trampled food, dirt cleaned once every 1-2 days.
- Drinkers, trough wash often. Ideally, this should be done daily, but at least once every 3 days it is imperative!
- Rodents need to be destroyed in a timely manner so that they do not settle in the rabbit.
- Food for animals is given high-quality, fresh. Grass and vegetables should be thoroughly washed out so that there are no insects or dirt on them.
- Rabbit houses are disinfected at least once every 6 months, so that there is no damage by parasites.
- Any new rabbits (young or purchased individuals) must be kept in quarantine for a month to identify a variety of ailments, if any.
Coccidiosis is a very dangerous and unpleasant disease. For rabbits, it can be a real scourge if it is not detected in time and the treatment begins. But even with timely treatment, the recovered individual can harm the herd, therefore it usually goes to slaughter. So every breeder should know what the disease is and how to prevent it.